Dating of old testament books donata dating
Second Isaiah also spoke of the return as a second exodus with similar vocabulary (-21; -21; -11; ).Depicting the return as a second exodus also encourages comparison and lifts up several contrasts between the two events.Ezra begins by seeing Cyrus's decree to release the exiles as the fulfillment of God's promise in Jeremiah (Ezra 1:1-4).Three similarly structured episodes follow: return and reconstruction of the temple under Zerubbabel (Ezra 1:5--); return and reconstruction of the community under Ezra (7-10); and then, under Nehemiah, return and reconstruction of the walls (Nehemiah 1:1--a).
This also becomes a fruitful way to speak of God's grace since "God's hand" is usually nudging those around the Jewish community to provide for them in caring ways.Theological differences between Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah have caused a revision of the view that Ezra, Nehemiah, and the books of Chronicles share common authorship and comprise the so-called "Chronicler's History." These differences include Chronicles' inclusive attitude toward the people of the northern kingdom; emphasis upon the Davidic monarchy; and concern with retributive justice--all essentially absent from Ezra-Nehemiah--as well as the differing understanding of "Israel" in the two works.In Chronicles, Israel is defined as all twelve tribes; Ezra-Nehemiah, however, limits Israel to Judah and Benjamin.In five of the above references the Hebrew wording ("according to the hand of") is a technical expression for royal benevolence in each of its other canonical occurrences (1 Kings ; Esther 1:7; ).This may be a covert way of claiming that God is still king, despite the Persian rule of Yehud, and that it is God's grace and beneficence that sustains them. Both Ezra and Nehemiah encounter strong opposition to their work from the neighboring peoples.